Self-Selected Individual Music Therapy for Depression during Hospitalization for Cancer Patients: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Study
DOI : 10.33371/ijoc.v13i3.632
Background: Depression is a psychological distress that often occurs on cancer patients. Depression can increase patient perception about pain, resulting reduced drug efficacy and longer length of stay. Drug treatment for depression sometimes has side effects. Another intervention to decrease depression on cancer patients is music therapy. Music therapy might avoid polypharmacy in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-selected individual music therapy toward depression of cancer patients.
Methods: The method used in this study was the randomized control trial (RCT). Simple Random Sampling was assigned randomly by three researcher assistants to participants (N=70) of intervention and control group. The intervention used was self-selected individual music therapy (SeLIMuT). SeLIMuT was applied four times in 2 days with a duration of 15 minutes each session. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was employed for selection purposes. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney with p < 0.05 and 95% CI. The effectiveness of therapy was analyzed by the effect size test using abs r.
Results: Based on the result of the bivariate analysis, there was an effect of giving self-selected individual music therapy to reduce depression with depression gap in both groups with p-value of 0.001 (p < 0.05). The value of the effect test obtained abs r = 0.82 (r > 0.5). At the end, the self-selected individual music therapy had moderate effect toward depression of cancer patients.
Conclusions: Music therapy is safe, inexpensive, and easy to use, for and by patients. The nurse can safely recommend any of these interventions for depression on cancer patients. Specific selections or types of music may have different effects on different patients and may provide different effects at different time, so the use of self-selected individual music therapy is recommended.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Latest world cancer statistics: Extimated Cancer Incidence. 2013; Access on 18 Sept. 2016.
- Smeltzer SC, Bare BG, Hinkle JI, Cheever, KH. Brunner and Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical Surgical Nursing. Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2008; 11th rev.
- Effendy C, Vissers K, Osse BH, Tejawijaya S, Vernooij-Dagsen M, Engels Y. Comparison of problems and unmet needs of patients with advanced cancer in a European country and an Asian country. Pain Pract. 2014;(5): 433-440.
- Whitmer KM, Pruemer JM, Nahleh ZA, Jazieh AR. Symptom management needs of oncology outpatients. J Palliat Med. 2006;9(3): 628-30.
- American Cancer Society (ACS). Caring for patient with cancer at home: A guide for patients and families. Atlanta: American Cancer Society. 2015.
- Miller G. Cancer prevention and treatment. 5th Ed. Jakarta: Pustakaraya. 2008
- Koningan A. Depression on cancer paliative care – Paliative center care and pain free on Dr. Soetomo Surabaya Hospital. Available from http: www. Paliative.surabaya.com. 2008; Acces on 21 July 2016.
- Chintamani C, Gogne A, Khandelwal R, Tandon M, Jain S, Kumar Y, Narayan N, et al. The correlation of anxiety and depression levels with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. JRSM Short Report. 2011; 2(3): 1-15.
- Boehm K, Cramer H, Staroszynski T, Ostermann T. Arts therapies for anxiety, depression, and quality of life in breast cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014; 1-9.
- Jia L, Chen J, Th Ho R, Yu J, Guo L, Li L. Music intervention can improve emotional in cancer patients during disease progression. Arch Deppres Anxiety. 2016;2(1): 007-009.
- Purbowinoto SE, Kartinah. Effects music therapy on geriatic depression Yogyakarta. Scientific Publication UMS. 2011; 4: 44-49.
- Abigail M, Qin L, Bauver-Wu S. Prevalence and predictor of complementary therapy use in advanced-stage breast cancer patients. J Oncol Pract. 2007;3(6): 292-95.
- Edwards J. Music therapy in the treatment and management of mental disorders. Ir J Psychol Med. 2006;22: 33-35.
- Hawks J, Moyad M. CAM: Definition and Classification. Overview. Urologic Nursing. 2003;23(3): 221-223.
- Samuel, H. Effects mozart and music therapy in health care. 2007; Available from http://www.tempo.co.id/medika/arsip/012003/pus-2.htm. Acces on 21 July 2016.
- Salamon E, Bernstein SR, Kim S, Kim M, Stefano GB. The effect of auditory perception and musical preference on anxiety in naive human subjects. Med Sci Monit. 2003;9(9): 227-284.
- Batt-Rawden BK. The benefits of self-selected music on health and well-being. The Arts in Psychotherapy. 2010;37: 301–310.
- Beck AT, Steer RA, Garbin GM. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psychol Rev. 1988;8: 77-100.
- Romito F, Lagattolla F, Costanzo C, Giotta F, Mattioli V. Music therapy and emotional expression during chemotherapy. How do breast cancer patient feel?”. Eur J Integr Med. 2013;5: 438-442.
- Matsuda T, Takayama T, Tashiro M, Nakamura Y, Ohashi Y, Shimozuma K. Mild cognitive impairment after adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patient-evaluation of appropriate research design and methodology to measure symptoms. Breast Cancer. 2005;12(4): 279-287.
- Merriman DJ, Diane AV, Miaskowski C, Aouizerat EB. Proposed mechanism for cancer and treatment-related cognitive changes. Semin Oncology Nursing. 2013;28(4): 206-269.
- Nevid SF, Rathus AS, Greene B. Abnormal psychology. 2003; 5th Ed. Jakarta: Erlangga.
- Frold T, Schule C, Schmitt G. Association of brain derived neurotrophic factor vall66met polymorphisim with reduced hippocampal volumes in major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64: 410-416.
- Stahl SM, Wise DD. The potential role of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 antagonist. Psychiatry. 2008;21(2): 106-111.
- Hayama Y, Inoue T. The effect of deep breathing on “tensione anxiety” and fatique in cancer patient undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. Complementery Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2011;XXX: 1-5.
- Anjali J, Ulrich R. Sound control for improved outcome in health care settings. The Center for Health Design Issue Paper. 2007; 4: 1-15.
- Nilsson U. Soothing music can increase oxytocin level during bed rest after open-herat surgery: A randomised control trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2009;18: 2154-2161.
- Wilgram AL. The effect of vibroacoustic therapy on clinical and non-clinical population. London: St. Georges Hospital Medical School London University.2002.
- Campbell D. Music: Physician for time to come. 3rd Edition. Wheaton: Qouest Books. 2006.
- Chan MF, Chan EA, Mok E, Tse FYK. Effect of music on depression levels and physiological responses in community-based older adults. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 2009;18: 285–294.
- Chanda ML, Levitin DJ. Feature review: The neurochemestry of music. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2013; 17(4): 179-193.
- DeNora T. Music in everyday life. Cambridge: University Press.2000
- Roth EW. Music therapy: the rhythm of recovery. Case Manager. 2004.15: 52–56.
- Nicholas, Humenick. How music works as a therapy. Jakarta: Salemba Medika. 2002.
- Djohan. Music therapy: theory and aplication. Yogyakarta: Galang Press. 2006.
- Atwater H. Binaural Beats and the Regulation of Arousal Levels. Hemi-Sinc Journal. 2009; 1: 1-2.
- Guyton AC, Hall JE. The sense of deep hearing: Textbook of Medical Physiology, Eleventh Edition. 2007.
- Rayes-Gibby CC, Anderson KO, Morrow PK, Shete S, Hassan S. Deppresive symptoms and health-related quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Journal of Women’s Health. 2012;21(3): 311-328.
- Wakim JH, Smith S, Guinn C. The efficacy of music therapy. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing. 2010;25(4): 226-232.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.