The Implementation of Modified ERAS Protocol in Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: An Outcome at Universitas Gadjah Mada Urological Institute

Said Alfin Khalilullah, Ahmad Zulfan Hendri


Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol is multimodal perioperative care designed to achieve enhanced postoperative outcomes. Unfortunately, all these elements are not always fully applied due to each center’s limitations. In this study, the ERAS protocol was modified and implemented in patients with bladder cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC). This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the modified ERAS protocol in LRC surgery.

Methods: The retrospective study design was used to evaluate 35 patients (27 males and 8 females) who underwent LRC with the application of the perioperative modified ERAS protocol. All information relating to perioperative, intraoperative, and postoperative patient data was obtained from medical records. All complications that occurred were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification.

Results: The mean age in this study was 58.3 ± 9.2, and the most common pathological finding was urothelial carcinoma. Intraoperative blood loss was 318.5 ± 112.5 cc with those requiring intraoperative blood transfusion of 4.8 ± 2.0 patients. The mean first diet was 2.1 ± 1.2 days. For bowel activities, the first flatulence was 1.6 ± 0.8 days. The mean mobilization with first sitting was 1.8 ± 0.9 days. Seventeen percent of patients experienced intraoperative complications and postoperative complications were encountered in 28.6% of patients. According to the ClavienDindo classification, most complications were grades 1-2 (17.1%). There was no incidence of mortality in this study.

Conclusions: These promising results, including the postoperative recovery and complications rates, require validation with multi-center and randomized studies to confirm the benefits of the modified ERAS protocol in minimally invasive procedures, especially LRC surgery


bladder cancer, laparoscopy, modified ERAS, radical cystectomy


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DOI: 10.33371/ijoc.v15i4.827

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